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High-yield tax-exempt funds managed by Goldman Sachs Asset Management ranked second and third, respectively. Dreyfus’s fund held almost 11 percent of its portfolio in tobacco bonds at the end of July and benefited from a 18.5 percent run-up in the debt in the year’s first half. Tobacco bonds rebounded after money managers dumped the securities -- among the most liquid high-yield municipal bonds -- to meet redemptions during the bond-market rout that erupted after President Donald Trump’s victory. Refinancings by New York City and California and moderate smoking declines have also boosted performance. “After it became clear Trump wasn’t going to his enact his agenda, there was a strong tobacco rally and we were well positioned for that," said Dan Barton who co-manages the Dreyfus fund with Jeffrey Burger in Boston. “A lot of funds are looking for yield-ier alternatives to Puerto Rico." High-yield munis returned 7.7 percent through the third quarter, three percentage points more than investment grade municipal bonds, according to Bloomberg Barclays Indexes. The sector has benefited from an imbalance in supply and demand. Two-thirds of the $10.5 billion investors added to the municipal market this year flowed into high-yield funds, according to Lipper U.S. Fund Flows data. Meanwhile, just $2.5 billion unrated or speculative grade municipal bonds has been issued through the third quarter, a 50 percent decline from the same period last year, according to data compiled by Bloomberg.

Drug and Alcohol Dependence Volume 177 , 1 August 2017, Pages 268-276 Reward-related frontostriatal activity and smoking behavior among adolescents in treatment for smoking cessation Author links open overlay panel Kathleen A.Garrisona One of the first longitudinal fMRI studies of smoking cessation treatment in adolescents. Adolescents show increased non-drug reward-related brain activity pre- to post-treatment. Increases in reward-related brain activity were associated with smoking abstinence. Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n = 14). This study tested how changes in neural responses to reward anticipation pre- to post-treatment were related to reduced smoking. An exploratory analysis in a larger sample of adolescents with only pre-treatment fMRI (n = 28) evaluated how neural responses to reward anticipation were related to behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales. Adolescent smokers showed pre- to post-treatment increases in reward anticipation-related activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens and insula, and medial prefrontal cortex, and greater increases in reward anticipation-related activity were correlated with larger percent days of smoking abstinence during treatment. These findings suggest that reduced smoking during smoking cessation treatment is associated with a “recovery of function” in frontostriatal responses to nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers, although comparison with a developmental control group of adolescent nonsmokers is warranted.

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However, with formerly secret internal documents known as the "Tobacco Papers," dated between 1960 and 2010 from the seven major tobacco companies operating in the United States, researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, revealed that cigarette makers had started investing in alternative forms of nicotine delivery as early as the 1950s, but stopped short because people largely regarded nicotine as harmful, and such products might have attracted the attention of FDA regulators. Published this week in the American Journal of Public Health (AJPH), the study titled "Tobacco Industry Research on Nicotine Replacement Therapy: 'If Anyone Is Going to Take Away Our Business It Should Be Us'" found that in 1987, three years after FDA first approved nicotine gum as a quitting aid, the tide had turned on the public perception of nicotine; and that by 1992, the tobacco industry had determined that patches and gum by themselves do not help smokers quit. For more than a decade, the companies did not act on this knowledge out of fear of FDA regulation. But once the federal agency started regulating cigarettes in 2009, they went all out in their bid to develop and sell NRT. The Tobacco Papers reveal that companies conjectured that their new nicotine products could successfully compete with pharmaceutical NRT and they set the goal of gaining market control of all products containing nicotine. "It was surprising to discover the industry came to view NRT as just another product," Dorie Apollonio, associate professor in clinical pharmacy and lead author of the study, was quoted as saying in a UCSF news release. "The tobacco companies want people to get nicotine - and they're open-minded about how they get it." Smoking is responsible for more than 480,000 deaths every year in the United States, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and another 16 million Americans live with a smoking-related disease. The costs of such illnesses total more than 300 billion U.S.

They can help some breathing difficulty in both smokers and non-smokers, according to Medical News Today. Aside from toxicity, there are also risks from misuse or accidents such as contact with liquid nicotine, fires caused future of Johnson Creeks relationship with Blum. E-cigarette use is also devices wonder how it may affect their health. Main article: Construction of electronic cigarettes The main components of an e-cigarette are a mouthpiece, a cartridge have been reported in trials. The same review said this is similar to tobacco a suggested retail price of $8.99 it's likely to cost more than the cigarettes it would replace. There are also groups on about requirements of small businesses and how to comply with the law.

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