Volume 177 , 1 August 2017, Pages 268-276 Reward-related frontostriatal activity and smoking behavior among adolescents in treatment for smoking cessation Author links open overlay panel Kathleen A.Garrisona One of the first longitudinal fMRI studies of smoking cessation treatment in adolescents. Adolescents show increased non-drug reward-related brain activity pre- to post-treatment. Increases in reward-related brain activity were associated with smoking abstinence. Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n = 14). This study tested how changes in neural responses to reward anticipation pre- to post-treatment were related to reduced smoking. An exploratory analysis in a larger sample of adolescents with only pre-treatment fMRI (n = 28) evaluated how neural responses to reward anticipation were related to behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales.
All this comes as scrutiny already is being poured on digital platforms for making it too easy for Russian-backed entities to spread manipulative information in the buildup to the U.S. presidential election. Facebook yesterday estimated 10 million users saw ads it discovered had been paid for by suspected Russian-backed accounts. The company presented congressional investigators with data on thousands of ads bought by Russian actors before and after the election. Facebook also said it plans to add 1,000 new workers to review ads on the platform. Over at Twitter, one of the focal points as Congress and others focus on Russia’s alleged use of social media to influence the election is the prevalence of bots on the platform , which can be commandeered to disseminate disingenuous information. If you thought the days of Big Tobacco ads on mainstream media were over, think again. At least temporarily. From November, the makers of brands including Marlboro and Camel have been forced by a court to buy prime-time TV spots and newspaper ads to settle a lawsuit brought nearly two decades ago by the U.S. Department of Justice over misleading statements the industry had made about the health effects of cigarettes, The Wall Street Journal reports. The ads won’t display graphic images but instead will present stark black-and-white text statements stating how tobacco companies “intentionally designed cigarettes to make them more addictive,” while another will say “more people die every year from smoking than from murder, AIDS, suicide, drugs, car crashes, and alcohol, combined.” Amazingly, there’s no requirement these ads run on any digital channels, where many young, impressionable people who might be considering taking up smoking tend to consume a lot of their media.
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